Diabetes diet is one of the methods to control the disease to prevent the development of acute and chronic complications. The main task of therapeutic measures is to normalize metabolic processes in the body by optimizing blood sugar levels to the maximum allowable value.
The key to the patient's well-being is to follow a diet with a limited amount of carbohydrates and well-chosen drug therapy.
If you do not start treatment in time, diabetes complicates the kidneys, nervous system, blood vessels, eyes, heart.
Etiology and pathogenesis
Today, 4% of the world's population suffers from this disease. According to the WHO, 8, 640 people with diabetes die every day worldwide, 3 million people die every year. This figure is several times higher than the death rate from hepatitis and AIDS. According to the International Diabetes Federation, by 2014 the number of carriers of this disease is 285 million. At the same time, according to forecasts, by 2030 their number may increase to 438 million.
Etiology of the disease:
- hereditary predisposition; viral infections (influenza, tonsillitis), as a result of which the island apparatus is damaged and latent diabetes is formed;
- mental / physical trauma;
- vascular, autoimmune disorders.
External factors contributing to the development of diabetes:
- prolonged mental stress, stress, fear, dread;
- eating foods with excessive amounts of carbohydrates, saturated sugars;
- prolonged overeating.
Symptoms of diabetes in men and women:
- polyuria (increase in urine output to 8 l / day);
- weight loss;
- hair loss;
- increased urination;
- intense thirst;
- decreased libido, potency;
- itching of the legs, palms, perineum;
- increased appetite;
- wounds do not heal well;
- decreased visual acuity;
- Odor of acetone from the mouth.
If you find signs of disease, you should consult a doctor immediately, as the effectiveness of diabetes treatment directly depends on the speed at which the first symptoms of the disease are detected, the conclusion of the diagnosis and drug therapy. Remember that in the early stages the disease is easier to treat.
Classification of diseases and role of nutrition
The main role after drug therapy should be given to the patient's diet.
The types of diets depend on the stage of pancreatic depression, the mechanism of its manifestation and the method of treatment.
Degrees of the disease
- Type 1 diabetes. This is a severe autoimmune disease associated with impaired glucose metabolism. In this case, the pancreas does not produce at all or produces too little insulin needed to maintain the body's vital functions.
- Type 2 diabetes. Often this form of the disease develops in sedentary people with age, whose excess body weight exceeds 15% of the total weight.
- Gestational diabetes. This type of diabetes develops in 4% of women during pregnancy, more often in the second trimester. Unlike the first two types of disease, in most cases it disappears immediately after the birth of the child, but sometimes it can transform into the second type of diabetes. . . .
The less common forms (variants) of diabetes mellitus, which occur in 1% of the world's population, are prediabetes, latent, neurogenic, renal, steroid, bronze, MODY.
Types of diabetes in diabetes
Insulin injections, hypoglycemic drugs and physical activity play an important role in achieving positive dynamics in the treatment of the disease. However, according to some doctors (A. Bronstein, E. Malisheva, V. Kononov) the right diet plays a fundamental role.
Types of food programs
- Carbohydrate-free diet is a technique that is based on the consumption of complex carbohydrates from vegetables, fruits - in large quantities and the exclusion of foods containing simple carbohydrates from the menu.
- Protein diet for diabetes. This diet is based on the principle of minimizing the consumption of carbohydrates and fats by increasing the protein in the diet. The main emphasis in the methodology is the replacement of meat with lean fish, poultry and fermented dairy products.
- Low carb diet used to compile menus for type 1 diabetics. 2.
- Buckwheat diet. Regular consumption of this product has a beneficial effect on the body: it lowers the level of "bad" cholesterol and saturates it with iron, rutin, calcium, magnesium, fiber, iodine, B vitamins. Buckwheat diet for diabetes helps to minimizethe likelihood of macrovascular complications and ulcers.
- The diabetes prevention diet is designed to reduce the risk of developing pancreatic dysfunction.
With the onset of exacerbations of the heart system and blood vessels, diet 10 is practiced in diabetes. Its peculiarity is to reduce the consumption of fluids, salt, fats, carbohydrates, as these substances overload the liver, kidneys and excite the nervous system.
Let's take a closer look at what kind of diet is needed for diabetes, recipes for dishes that are allowed for use during the diet.
When you detect diabetes, it is important to properly balance the intake of carbohydrates and glucose-lowering substances in the body. A universal parameter called bread is used to calculate the calorie content of foods. At the same time 1 XE (10 - 13 g of pure carbohydrates) raises glucose to 2, 77 mmol / l and "requires" 1, 4 units of insulin for its absorption. As the injection is given before the start of a meal, it is important to plan the one-time meal in advance.
The saturation of carbohydrates in one meal should be 4-6 units of bread. The frequency and timing of meals directly depend on the type of sugar-reducing medicine.
Quantity of product that corresponds to 1XE:
- sugar - 1 tbsp. ;
- honey - 1 tbsp. l . ;
- spaghetti - 1, 5 tbsp . ;
- fruit juices - 150 ml;
- ice cream - 60 g;
- fresh water with gas - 180 ml;
- bread (rye, white, black) - 25 g;
- pancakes or pancakes - 1 pc. ;
- dough - 25 g;
- melon - 300 g;
- porridge (oats, buckwheat, wheat) - 2 tablespoons cereal;
- sausages - 200 g;
- kefir, fermented baked milk, milk - 250 ml;
- mashed potatoes - 100 g;
- apples - 100 g;
- legumes (peas, beans) - 5 tbsp. l . ;
- kiwi - 150 g;
- pears - 90 g;
- oranges - 100 g;
- fruits - 150 g;
- plums - 100 g;
- peaches - 150 g;
- melon - 400 g;
- dried fruits (prunes, raisins, dried apricots) - 20 g
The saturation of carbohydrates in the daily diet of a diabetic should not exceed 17 units of bread (2000 kcal).
In addition to counting saccharides, it is important for patients with pancreatic dysfunction to carefully choose foods based on prohibited and permitted ingredients.
|Product Category||Allowed||Available in
|Bakery products||Detained||Wheat, whole grains, rye, second grade flour||Butter dough, pastries|
|Meat and Poultry||-||Lean varieties of beef, lamb, chicken, turkey, rabbit, boiled tongue, diet sausage||Fatty pork, beef, goose, duck, canned food, sausages, bacon, smoked sausages|
|First courses||Borsch, cabbage soup, fish soup, soups: mushrooms, fish, beets||Post solyanka||Soups with noodles, fatty broths, traditional food|
|Fish||Fillet with lean fish||Mussels, squid, shrimp, oysters, crabs, salmon (trout, salmon, salmon)||Eel, caviar, canned oil, herring (sprat, sprat, herring), sturgeon (star sturgeon, beluga, sturgeon)|
|Dairy, fermented dairy products||Milk, kefir, unsalted cheese 25-30%||Homemade yogurt, 0% milk, feta cheese, 5% cottage cheese, yogurt, fermented baked milk||Sour cream, 50-60% cheese, salted cheese, glazed cottage cheese, butter, condensed milk, cream|
|Porridge||Buckwheat, pearl barley, oats, barley, millet||-||Semolina, brown rice, pasta|
|Vegetables||carrots, cabbage (all kinds), beets, pumpkin, tomatoes, zucchini, eggplant, onions, turnips, radishes, mushrooms, cucumbers, fresh leafy vegetables, peppers||Corn, boiled potatoes, fresh legumes||French fries, fried vegetables, pickled and salted vegetables|
|Fruits, fruits||Quince, lemons, blueberries, pears||Plums, apples, peaches, oranges, cherries, blueberries, watermelon, raspberries||Grapes, figs, dates, raisins, bananas|
|Desserts||Fruit salads||Sambuca, compotes, sweetener mousse, fruit jelly, green cocktails with honey (1 dec. l. )||Ice cream, pastries, fatty cookies, pastries, jam, puddings, pastries, milk chocolate with nuts|
|Sauces and condiments||Mustard, pepper, horseradish, tomato juice, cinnamon, dry spices and herbs||Homemade mayonnaise||Ketchup, sauteed vegetables, purchased sauces|
|Drinks||Tea, cocoa, ground coffee (without sugar and cream), rosehip and raspberry decoction, unsweetened fruit nectars, sour fruit drinks||Natural vegetable juices (diluted)||Sugar lemonades, yeast, sweet drinks, alcohol|
|Fat||-||Vegetable oils (flaxseed, corn, olive sunflower), unsalted oil||Lard, meat fat|
After converting carbohydrates into bread units, it is important to determine the amount of insulin that will be needed to utilize blood sugar after a meal. Following this recommendation will help to avoid life-threatening conditions - hyper and hypoglycemia.
Diet for grade 1 diabetes
The type 1 diet for diabetes is based on strict control of blood glucose levels (3, 5. . . 5, 5 mmol / l).
Consider the characteristics of food intake, which allows you to maintain its level within the established limits.
- The maximum daily calorie content of meals (total per day) is 2000 kcal.
- Fractional feeding (at least 5 times).
- Eliminate pure sucrose from the menu to lower blood sugar.
- Distribute the main dose of carbohydrates for breakfast and lunch.
- Don't eat at night.
- Avoid easily digestible carbohydrates: baked goods, honey, jam, canned food.
- Use a natural sweetener as a sweetener.
- To monitor the quality, the "naturalness" of the products.
- Adjust the schedule of insulin therapy for nutrition (long-acting drug is administered before meals, short - after meals).
- Calculate the number of units of bread to take into account the amount of carbohydrates eaten per day. You should consume no more than 8 XE per meal.
In the presence of diseases of the gastrointestinal tract (pancreatitis, ulcers, gastritis), the diet for diabetes prohibits the intake of products such as: pickles, smoked meats, rich broths, coffee, carbonated beverages, alcohol, mushrooms, canned food, which stimulate excessive secretion of enzymes, as they affect the rate and level of carbohydrate absorption.
Authorized foods for type 1 diabetes:
- bakery products without yeast (lavash);
- fruits, berries (plum, cherry, lemon, apple, pear, orange); soy products (tofu, milk);
- cereals (pearl barley, oatmeal, buckwheat porridge);
- vegetarian puree soups;
- beverages (low carbonated mineral water, mousse fruit, dried fruit compote);
- vegetables (onions, zucchini, peppers, beets, carrots);
- nuts (not roasted);
- weak coffee, unsweetened green / black / fruit teas.
- rich soups, broths;
- pasta, flour;
- pastries (cakes, pastries, pastries, chocolate, muffins);
- fast food, semi-finished products;
- alcoholic beverages (it is strictly forbidden to consume red dessert wine);
- sour, smoked, spicy foods;
- fatty meats (pork, lamb, duck), fish (mackerel).
The daily caloric intake of an obese patient on this insulin diet is in the range of 1200-1400 kcal. If you do not need to get rid of extra pounds, portions can be increased.
Diet for a week for overweight insulin addicts
Day # 1
- breakfast - bread - 1 slice, porridge - 170 g, green tea, cheese - 40 g;
- second breakfast - pear - 0, 5 pcs, young cheese - 60 g;
- lunch - borsch - 250 g, stewed cabbage - 200 g, vegetable salad - 100 g, steamed cutlet - 100 g, pita bread;
- afternoon tea - rosehip broth, cottage cheese - 100 g, fruit jelly - 100 g;
- dinner - cauliflower zrazy - 100 g, vegetable salad - 150 g;
- before bed - milk - 200 ml.
Day # 2
- breakfast - boiled beef - 50 g, green tea, omelet, tomato - 1 pc. , bread - 1 slice;
- second breakfast - grapefruit or orange - 1 pc, pistachios - 50 g;
- lunch - chicken breast - 100 g, vegetable salad - 150 g, pumpkin porridge - 150 g;
- afternoon tea - grapefruit - 1 pc. , kefir - 200 ml. ;
- dinner - boiled fish - 100 g, stewed cabbage - 200 g;
- bedtime - unsweetened cracker - 50g
Day # 3
- breakfast - lavash, weak coffee without sugar, cabbage rolls with meat - 200 g;
- second breakfast - strawberries - 120 g, yogurt - 200 ml;
- lunch - pasta - 100 g, vegetable salad - 100 g, steamed fish - 100 g;
- afternoon tea - orange - 1 pc. , decoction of dried fruits;
- dinner - casserole with cottage cheese with pears - 250 g;
- before bed - kefir.
- breakfast - porridge - 200 g, green tea, cheese - 70 g. boiled egg - 1 pc. ;
- second breakfast - toast with cheese, turkey fillet;
- lunch - stewed zucchini with meat - 200 g, vegetarian puree soup - 150 g, bread - 2 pcs. ;
- afternoon tea - lean cookies - 15 g, unsweetened black tea;
- dinner - green beans - 200 g, boiled chicken fillet - 150 g, rosehip broth;
- before bed - dry diet bread - 3 pcs.
Day # 5
- breakfast - low-fat cottage cheese (up to 5%) - 150 g, kefir - 200 ml;
- second breakfast - pumpkin seeds - 2 tbsp, raisins - 3 tbsp;
- lunch - baked potatoes - 100 g, vegetable salad - 150 g, sugar-free compote - 100 g;
- afternoon tea - unsweetened fruit tea, roasted pumpkin - 150 g;
- dinner - vegetable salad - 200 g, steamed cutlet - 100 g or pancakes with blueberries on rye flour - 250 g;
- before bed - kefir 1%.
- breakfast - boiled egg - 1 pc, fruit tea, lightly salted salmon - 30 g;
- second breakfast - cottage cheese - 150 g, carrots - 1 pc. ;
- lunch - green borsch - 250 g, cabbage rolls with brown rice and carrots - 170 g; pita;
- afternoon tea - kefir - 150 ml. , bread - 2 pcs. ;
- dinner - fresh peas - 100 g, boiled chicken fillet - 100 g, stewed eggplant - 150 g;
- before bed - dry biscuits - 50 g.
- breakfast - ham - 50 g, buckwheat porridge - 200 g, green tea;
- second breakfast - tuna salad, cucumber, cherry tomatoes, rye wholemeal bread - 150 g;
- lunch - stewed zucchini with carrots - 100 g, cabbage soup - 250 g, bread - 1 slice, chicken cutlet - 50 g;
- afternoon tea - cottage cheese - 100 g, apricots or plums - 4 pcs;
- dinner - squid schnitzel with onions - 150 g, dried fruit compote;
- before bed - milk - 200 ml.
The low-carb diet for diabetes is a strictly balanced diet for the patient to keep sugar within normal limits and systemic weight loss.
Type 2 Diabetes Diet
Basics of healthy eating diet:
- replace refined carbohydrates with sweeteners;
- the ratio of BZHU should be 20%: 30%: 50%;
- reduction of animal fat consumption by up to 50%;
The caloric content of the daily diet depends on the patient's energy consumption and body weight.
Diabetes Diet 9 or Table 9 is a balanced program for diabetics with moderate to moderate obesity. Adhering to it, the patient's diet consists of: protein (100 g. ), Carbohydrates (320 g. ), Fat (80 g. ), Of which 30% are unsaturated triglycerides.
The diet for type 2 diabetes is almost the same as the diet program for people who monitor their health:
- divide the whole volume of daily food into 5 meals: 2 breakfasts at 1-2XE, 3 main meals at 5-8XE;
- don't miss breakfast;
- maximum rest between meals - 4 hours;
- last meal in the evening - 1, 5 hours before bedtime;
- it is recommended to consume vegetable salads, fruits, freshly squeezed juices, dried fruit broth, kefir, milk, green or fruit tea, unsweetened cookies (biscuits), bread between meals.
Daily diet for type 2 diabetes
Day # 1
- breakfast - asparagus - 100g. , scrambled eggs of 3-4 quail eggs;
- second breakfast - salad of walnuts, squid, apples - 200 g;
- lunch - roasted aubergines stuffed with pomegranate, nuts - 100 g, beets - 250 g;
- afternoon tea - avocado and cocoa ice cream - 100 g;
- Dinner - salmon steak with radish sauce - 200 g
Day # 2
- breakfast - yogurt, oval oats - 200 g (you can use nectar from stevia or agave as a sweetener), apple - 1 pc. ;
- second breakfast - fruit smoothies (grind in a blender 80 g of cherries, strawberries, melons and 4 ice cubes);
- lunch - roasted beef - 150 g, vegetable stew - 200 g;
- afternoon breakfast - cottage cheese and pear - 150 g;
- dinner - a mix of vegetables - 200 g, avocado - half the fruit.
Day # 3
- breakfast - fried eggs of two eggs with the addition of low-fat cheese, basil, tomatoes;
- second breakfast - steamed vegetables - 100 g, hummus - 100 g;
- lunch - vegetarian puree soup - 200 g, green peas - 50 g chicken cutlets - 150 g;
- afternoon tea - pear - 1 pc. , almonds - 50 g;
- Dinner - salmon - 150 g, yogurt, spinach.
- breakfast - baked fruits (apples, plums, cherries) in agave nectar - 200 g;
- second breakfast - tuna and lettuce sandwich;
- lunch - beef steak - 150 g, boiled cauliflower - 200 g, tomato salad, arugula, parmesan - 100 g;
- afternoon tea - fruit and forest dessert (chopped mango, kiwi, strawberries, combine with snow, pour orange juice and freeze) - 150 g;
- dinner - roll of broccoli - 200 g
Day # 5
- breakfast - orange - 1 pc. ; fruit tea, low-fat cheese - 30 g, bread - 2 pcs. ;
- second breakfast - beet salad with nuts - 200 g;
- lunch - rice - 200 g, salmon, steamed - 150 g, grapefruit - 1 pc. ;
- afternoon tea - fruit with whipped cream 10% - 150 g;
- dinner - rosehip broth, squid schnitzel with onions - 200 g.
- breakfast - carrot and cottage cheese souffle - 200 g;
- second breakfast - cauliflower zrazy - 100 g;
- lunch - tangerine salad, chicken breast, arugula - 200 g, dried fruit compote, vegetable borsch - 200 ml;
- afternoon tea - kiwi, raspberry mousse - 200 ml. ;
- dinner - steamed cod with carrots - 200 g, kefir.
- breakfast - baked apple stuffed with oatmeal, nuts, raisins - 1 pc. ;
- second breakfast - fruit and vegetable salad of kohlrabi, celery, pears - 200 g, shrimp - 100 g;
- lunch - polenta - 200 g, vegetables, boiled hake - 200 g, kiwi - 1 pc. ;
- afternoon tea - strawberries with mascarpone - 100 g;
- dinner - cucumber salad with onions, spinach - 250 g, green tea.
Depending on the course of the disease, changes may be made to the patient's menu.
Remember that the above sample diet is not a universal diet for all diabetics, so it is important to monitor your well-being while following it. In case of deterioration, "problematic" foods should be excluded from the menu.
Gestational diabetic diet
In some cases, the pancreas malfunctions in the body of the expectant mother and results in gestational diabetes. In most cases, this condition is easy to control with proper nutrition.
Diabetic diet during pregnancy
- Exclude from the diet sugar, confectionery, baked goods, semolina, sweet fruits, foods containing sweeteners.
- Balance the daily menu. The daily intake of carbohydrates is 50%, protein - 30%, fat - 15-20%. At the same time, Malisheva's diet for diabetes provides for minimizing the amount of food that contains plant and animal triglycerides (5-10%).
- Observe the drinking regime - 1, 5-2 liters of water per day.
- Enrich your daily diet with starch (cereals, rye bread, brown rice, legumes, sweet potatoes, Jerusalem artichokes, radishes, beets) and fermented dairy products.
- Fresh fruit breakfast.
- Divide your daily food intake into 3 main meals (breakfast, lunch, dinner) and 2 snacks (lunch, afternoon snack).
- Enrich your daily diet with multivitamin complexes for pregnant women.
- Reduce sugar with folk remedies, using decoctions of celery roots, linden flowers, blueberry leaves, lilac buds, bean pods.
- Limit your caffeine intake. The allowed amount of alkaloids is 2 servings of coffee or tea.
The optimal caloric intake of the daily diet of a pregnant woman is 2000 - 2500 kcal. At the same time, a carbohydrate-free diet in gestational diabetes is prohibited.
Recommended menu for expectant mothers with high blood sugar
- breakfast - millet porridge - 150 g, fruit tea, rye bread - 20 g;
- second breakfast - dry wholemeal muffin - 50 g, unsalted cheese 17% - 20 g, apple - 1 pc. ;
- lunch - buckwheat porridge - 100 g, cabbage mix, Jerusalem artichoke, cucumbers - 150 g, beef stew - 70 g;
- afternoon tea - cottage cheese 5% - 100 g, unsweetened crackers - 2 pcs. , orange - 1 pc. ;
- dinner - boiled chicken fillet - 60 g, vegetable garnish (carrots, cabbage, peppers) - 100 g, tomato juice - 180 ml, bread - 2 pcs. ;
- 3 hours before bedtime - kefir / yogurt - 200 ml.
In addition to following a special diet, patients with gestational diabetes are shown walking (40 minutes a day) and moderate physical activity (gymnastics, water exercise).
Diet for insulin-dependent diabetes in children
Diabetes in children and adolescents is much more difficult to carry than in adults. The child's genetic predisposition, stress and poor nutrition are the main reasons for the development of autoimmune diseases.
In 80% of cases, children are diagnosed with insulin-dependent diabetes (type 1). Early diagnosis, immediate treatment and strict adherence to a special diet will help prevent the consequences of the disease.
Diet for diabetes in children
- Exclude from the menu sugar, soda, confectionery, bread products from wheat flour, fried foods, bakery products.
- Enrich your daily menu with unsweetened fruits, vegetables and herbs (unlimited). Prohibited - grapes, bananas, raisins, dates, persimmons, figs.
- Use natural sugar substitutes.
- Divide your daily food intake into 6 meals. At the same time, it is important to eat food at regular intervals. The permissible deviations in the child's diet are 15-20 minutes.
- Food should be taken after 15 minutes. after the administration of insulin and 2 hours after the injection.
- If you can't eat at the appointed time, you can eat bread, pear, nuts, cheese or apple sandwich as a snack. Under no circumstances should you starve.
- Taking a piece of chocolate will immediately help stop hypoglycemic attacks. Therefore, an adult accompanying a child should always have a sweet product available.
- Enrich your child's daily diet with fermented dairy products.
- Calculate your daily fructose intake. The amount of sugar substitute directly depends on the age of the child and the nature of the course of the disease.
To lower blood glucose, it is recommended that the child give decoctions of blueberries, nettles, corn stalks, mint leaves, barberry branches, bean pods, Jerusalem artichoke, ginseng and Eleutherococcus.
Thus, the diet for patients with diabetes plays an important role, as the well-being and life of the patient depend on the correctness of its composition. That is why it is important to take a very serious and careful approach to the composition of the diet and its observance, otherwise negligence can lead to tragic consequences.